Shonkoff, J. P., Slopen, N., & Williams, D. R. (2021). Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the impacts of racism on the foundations of health. Annual Review of Public Health, 42, 115-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-090419-101940
Broadly focused on overall health in early childhood, this paper indicates new directions for communities, policies, program and funding streams specific to reducing inequities and adverse experiences affecting infant and early childhood development. Tracing the impact of racism through quantifiable measures, such as the burden of stress, it offers several upstream policy interventions and highlights the urgency of these issues.
This paper broadly overviews research exploring the connections between early adversity and lifelong wellbeing and provides recommendations on new directions for action. It may be of relevance to researchers, system actors and practitioners.